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Pattern-based Text Generator

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Introduction to PTG

A PTG specification is a set of named patterns describing the structure and textual components of an output text. They are contained in files of type .ptg. PTG generates a C module ptg_gen.[ch] that has one function for each pattern specified. Calls of these functions apply the patterns in order to compose an instance of the target text, which can be output by a call of PTG's output functions. Those functions may be used in LIDO specifications or in C modules which import the interface file of the generated module ptg_gen.h.

Consider the following simple example: Assume we want to produce parenthesized representations of binary trees like S-expressions in LISP:

We specify three named patterns, one for the parenthesized structure, one for the literal nil, and one for numbers:

     Pair:   "(" $ "." $ ")"
     Nil:    "nil"
     Numb:   $ int

For each of these patterns PTG generates a function which yields an internal representation of a pattern application. The following nested calls produce the above output text:

   PTGOut (
     PTGPair (
        PTGPair(PTGNumb(1), PTGNil()),
                PTGPair(PTGNumb(2), PTGPair(PTGNumb(3), PTGNil()))
Of course one may store intermediate results of pattern applications and defer output until the target text is completely composed:

   n1 = PTGPair (PTGNumb (1), PTGNil ());
   n2 = PTGPair(PTGNumb(2), PTGPair(PTGNumb(3), PTGNil()));
   PTGOut (PTGPair (n1, n2));

The benefits of using PTG can best be described by a comparison with using C printf functions directly. For the above example a C program would contain statements like

   printf ("( %s. %s)", a, b);
where a and b are pointers to the strings to be inserted.

Such a statement implements what text to be generated by the format string and the arguments, when it is to be output by the placement of the statement within the program, and how the text is produced by format strings and output functions.

PTG separates the issues what and when by the pattern specifications (what) and the function calls (when). The calls produce an internal structure with all information necessary to output the text, rather than immediately outputting it. PTG automatically and efficiently implements the how.

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